Module code: ENG2092

Module provider

Mechanical Engineering Sciences

Module Leader

LABEED F Dr (Mech Eng Sci)

Number of Credits


ECT Credits



FHEQ Level 5

JACs code


Module cap (Maximum number of students)


Module Availability

Semester 1

Overall student workload

Independent Study Hours: 106

Lecture Hours: 33

Tutorial Hours: 11

Assessment pattern

Assessment type Unit of assessment Weighting
Examination EXAMINATION 2 HOURS 75%
Coursework COURSEWORK 25%

Alternative Assessment


Prerequisites / Co-requisites


Module overview

This module describes the structure and function of the human body from the molecular to the system level, including the function of major organ systems. Furthermore, regulation of internal environmental conditions (homeostasis) by feedback loops and an introduction into measuring physiological activities and basic anthropometrics will be covered throughout.        

Module aims

An introduction to cellular biology and biochemical reactions critical for intracellular metabolic processes.

A comprehensive understanding of bone ossification, joints, structure of the skeletal system and bone's role in the regulation of blood calcium levels. Furthermore, the dependence of other factors such as hormones, vitamins and minerals on bone growth will be covered, along with the importance of lifestyle and nutrition in combating bone disorders.

Detail knowledge of muscle anatomy and physiology, i.e., muscular contraction at the microscopic level due to contributing factors including nerve impulses, ATP, calcium and specific muscular proteins.

A general overview of transport processes at the cellular level across the lipid bilayer; with a more detailed look at fluid systems within the body (i.e., blood and lymph; circulatory, urinary, respiratory and immune systems) including their composition and function.

A solid understanding in the structure and function of the nervous system (CNS and PNS). Control and propagation of nerve impulses at the microscopic level will be covered and the outcome of degenerative disorders of the nervous system will be examined (i.e., epilepsy, Parkinson's and Alzheimer’s).

Common techniques used in medical engineering to for basic anthropometric measurements will be introduced. In addition the techniques used to measure physiological activities of internal systems will also be investigated (e.g., ECG, EMG, spirometry).

Learning outcomes

Attributes Developed
Define and discuss the interdependence of the musculoskeletal system and joints in providing movement, locomotion and work. KC
Describe anatomical directions and name major parts and features of the skeletal system, including the classifications of all joint types within the human body K
Identify the 3 major muscle groups in the body and translate their microscopic anatomy to their specialised function. K
Interpret fluctuations in homeostatic balances and attribute imbalances to a particular system. CP
Discuss the important aspects of fluid systems including cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary and immune systems and their respective roles in maintaining a constant internal environment. KCP
Differentiate between diseases of the bone and joints, and compare causes and treatments for these diseases. KC
Recognize the importance of micturition, ultra-filtration and the role the kidney plays in hormone and electrolyte balancing KP
Compare and evaluate the cause and effects of diseases in the cardiovascular system and nervous system, and describe how biomedical engineering might remediate them. KCP

Attributes Developed

C - Cognitive/analytical

K - Subject knowledge

T - Transferable skills

P - Professional/Practical skills

Module content

Introduction to cellular biology, including structure and function of organelles; concept of the fluid mosaic model in animal cells; DNA structure and its role in protein synthesis.Basic biochemistry, including molecular structure of substrates for metabolic processes, types of reactions including synthesis and degradation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). [3h]
Musculoskeletal System: This includes the introduction of bone ossification and growth/remodelling (Wolff’s Law); fractures and their treatment; structural and functional classification of joint types and their position in the body; the sliding filament theory; introducing the concept of lever systems (effort, fulcrum and lever) in relation to the musculoskeletal system; disorders of the musculoskeletal system.[15h]
Structure and function of the cardiovascular system, including the blood, blood vessels and the heart. Factors contributing to disorders of the system including thromboembolisms..The lymphatic system and its function and cooperation with the cardiovascular system.Structure and function of the respiratory system, including gaseous exchange at the alveoli with blood.[6h]
Development of blood cells from stem cells, particularly leukocytes of the immune system. Functions of the 5 main types and their response to inflammation and bacterial infection. Disorders of the immune system will be covered. The role of the digestive and endocrine systems. [3h]
Detailed structure and function of the nervous system, both central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) as the control centre of the human body. Disorders arising as a consequence of system deterioration such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. [6h]
Biomedical engineering practices for measuring anthropometric data and physiological measurements of blood flow, ECG, lung capacity and other electrical signals from major organs of the human body will be covered throughout the course.

Methods of Teaching / Learning

The learning and teaching strategy is designed to:

Introduce the function and interaction of the key components of the human body and their disorders through a systemic approach, using worked examples. This is delivered principally through lectures and tutorial classes and concludes with an independently conducted mini project essay requiring student-led research on the interventions required to overcome a specific biological problem.

The learning and teaching methods include:

3 hours lecture per week x 11 weeks
1 hour tutorial (in groups) x 11 weeks
Coursework (20 hours)

Assessment Strategy

The assessment strategy is designed to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate understanding of the function, anatomy and interaction of the multiple key systems that form the human body.  The coursework element allows students to increase the depth of their knowledge in a specific aspect of biomedical engineering relating to human biology, but requires an understanding of the broader biological context.

Thus, the summative assessment for this module consists of:

Coursework               [ Learning outcomes 8 ]                      (20 hours)        {25%}
Examination              [ Learning outcomes 1-7]                    (2 hours)          {75%}

Formative assessment and feedback

Formative verbal feedback is given in tutorials
Verbal feedback is given on draft coursework assessment at a specific tutorial


Reading list

Reading list for HUMAN BIOLOGY :

Please note that the information detailed within this record is accurate at the time of publishing and may be subject to change. This record contains information for the most up to date version of the programme / module for the 2017/8 academic year.