Module code: ENG2096

Module provider

Mechanical Engineering Sciences

Module Leader

OGIN SL Prof (Mech Eng Sci)

Number of Credits


ECT Credits



FHEQ Level 5

JACs code


Module cap (Maximum number of students)


Module Availability

Semester 2

Overall student workload

Independent Study Hours: 106

Lecture Hours: 33

Tutorial Hours: 11

Assessment pattern

Assessment type Unit of assessment Weighting
Examination EXAMINATION 80%
School-timetabled exam/test IN-SEMESTER TEST (STRUCTURES) 10%

Alternative Assessment


Prerequisites / Co-requisites

Parts of the Module draw on ENG2091, Aerodynamics and Flight Mechanics, and ENG2088, Solid Mechanics.

Module overview

Second year module for BEng and MEng aerospace engineering students.

A lecture and tutorial based module giving understanding of aircraft structures, materials and aircraft aerodynamic loads and aeroelasticity. This builds on previous general modules on materials stress analysis and the module on aerodynamics and flight mechanics, providing the student with knowledge and understanding in each of these areas directly applicable to aircraft structures. It complements this knowledge with an introduction to fluid-structure interaction, presenting fundamental loads and aeroelastic effects that arise on aircraft structures.

Module aims

an introduction to typical features of (principally fixed-wing) aircraft structures and methods of stress analysis based on hand calculations

an introduction to the behaviour of some typical aerospace materials and the choice of material for different aerospace structures

an understanding of the interaction between aerodynamic loads and structural deformations, as well as an introduction to the most important aeroelastic effects on aircraft

Learning outcomes

Attributes Developed
Describe typical features of aircraft structures (SM1b, SM1m, EA1b, EA1m, P4, P6) K
Calculate bending and shear stresses in simplified (boom-idealised) wing and fuselage structures (SM1b, SM1m, SM2b, SM2m, EA1b, EA1m, EA2, D3b, D3m, P4) KC
Calculate shear-flow distributions in thin-walled, non-idealised beam sections (SM1b, SM1m, SM2b, SM2m, EA1b, EA1m, EA2, D3b, D3m, P4, P4m) KC
Discuss the behaviour of various materials in relation to their performance in aerospace structures, both qualitatively and, where appropriate, quantitatively and their sustainable use (SM1b, SM1m, SM2b, SM2m, EA1b,EA1m, EL4, P2, P2m P4, P4m) KC
Describe the fundamentals of fluid-structure interaction and its impact on aircraft analysis, design and certification (SM1b, SM1m, SM2b, SM2m, EA1b, EA1m, EA2, D3b,D3m P4) KC

Attributes Developed

C - Cognitive/analytical

K - Subject knowledge

T - Transferable skills

P - Professional/Practical skills

Module content

Indicative content includes:

Aircraft Structures[12 hrs]

Introduction to aircraft structures
Stiffened shell idealisation: direct stress booms and shear stress skins
Bending in boom-idealised wing and fuselage sections
Shear in thin-walled beam sections
Shear in boom-idealised sections

Aircraft Materials [12 hrs]

Materials selection for airframe and other ambient temperature aerospace applications, including introduction to the use of different alloy groups and composite materials
Failure considerations for airframe materials, including: design considerations, fatigue failure and fatigue crack growth, environmentally assited cracking
Aerospace alloys: classification, properties, and use of aluminium alloys, titanium alloys and high strength aerospace steels
Specific key materials are referred to throughout: Al alloys, Ti alloys, HS Steels and CFRP.

Aerodynamic Loads and Aeroelasticity [9 hrs]

Introduction to aerodynamic loads and the aeroelastic triangle
Steady manoeuvres, V-n diagrams, load factor
Wing load distributions and structural implications
Static aeroelasticity: divergence and control reversal
Gust response: sudden vertical and longitudinal gusts
Dynamic aeroelasticity: introduction to flutter

Methods of Teaching / Learning

The learning and teaching strategy is designed to:

Introduce aircraft structures, materials and aeroelasticity principles through theory and worked examples. This is delivered through lectures and tutorial classes.

The learning and teaching methods include:

3 hours lecture per week x 11 weeks
1 hour tutorial (in groups) x 11 weeks
3 hours revision lectures (1 hour for structures, 1 hour for materials,1 hour for aeroelasticity)


Assessment Strategy

The assessment strategy is designed to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate

they can describe aspects of typical aircraft structures and hence the rationale for their idealisation
they can analyse simplified aircraft structures through hand calculations
they can calculate shear flow distributions in thin-walled beam sections
they can describe the characteristics and properties of aerospace materials and justify choices depending on design requirements
they can describe the implications of fluid-structure interaction on aircraft analysis and design (final examination)
they can perform basic aerodynamic loads-related and aeroelastic hand calculations on simplified examples

Thus, the summative assessment for this module consists of:

Structures class test [Learning outcome 3]          (40 mins)        {10%}
Materials assignment [Learning outcome 4]          (3 hours)        {10%}
Examination [Learning outcomes 1, 2, 4, 5]          (2 hours)        {80%}

Formative assessment and feedback

Formative verbal feedback is given in lectures (group) and tutorials (individual)
Written feedback is given on the coursework (individual)

Reading list


Please note that the information detailed within this record is accurate at the time of publishing and may be subject to change. This record contains information for the most up to date version of the programme / module for the 2017/8 academic year.